Published work by Dr Huk and a team of doctors in the respected medical publication Circulation about the reduction of reperfusion injury with S-Nitroso Human Serum Albumin treatment, with a focus on nitric oxide release.
Background: Peroxynitrite generated from nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2−) contributes to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Feedback inhibition of endothelial NO synthase by NO may inhibit O2− production generated also by endothelial NO synthase at diminished local l-arginine concentrations accompanying I/R.
Methods and Results: During hindlimb I/R (2.5 hours/2 hours), in vivo NO was monitored continuously (porphyrinic sensor), and high-energy phosphates, reduced and oxidized glutathione (chromatography), and I/R injury were measured intermittently. Rabbits receiving human serum albumin (HSA) (controls) were compared with those receiving S-nitroso human serum albumin (S-NO-HSA) beginning 30 minutes before reperfusion for 1 hour or 30 minutes before ischemia for 3.5 hours (0.1 μmol · kg−1 · h− 1). The onset of ischemia led to a rapid increase of NO from its basal level (50±12 nmol/L) to 120±20 and 220±15 nmol/L in the control and S-NO-HSA–treated groups, respectively. In control animals, NO dropped below basal levels at the end of ischemia and to undetectable levels (<1 nmol/L) during reperfusion. In S-NO-HSA–treated animals, maximal NO levels never decreased below basal concentration and on reperfusion were 100±15 nmol/L (S-NO-HSA preischemia group, 175±15 nmol/L). NO supplementation by S-NO-HSA led to partial and in the preischemia group to total preservation of high-energy phosphates and glutathione status in reperfused muscle (eg, preischemia groups: ATP, 30.23±5.02 μmol/g versus control, 15.75±4.33 μmol/g, P<0.0005; % oxidized glutathione, 4.49± 1.87% versus control, 22.84±6.39%, P<0.0001). S-NO-HSA treatment in all groups led to protection from vasoconstriction and reduced edema formation after reperfusion (eg, preischemia groups: interfiber area, 12.94±1.36% versus control, 27.83±1.95%, P< 0.00001).
Conclusions: Long-lasting release of NO by S-NO-HSA provides significant protection of skeletal muscle from I/R injury.
(Seth Hallström, Harald Gasser, Christoph Neumayer, Alexander Fügl, Joseph Nanobashvili, Andrzej Jakubowski, Ihor Huk, Günther Schlag, and Tadeusz Malinski. Originally published 28 May 2002 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000018745.11739.9B Circulation. 2002;105:3032–3038)